Development of a Chloride Water Quality Guideline Based on Hardness and Consideration for Cation Toxicity

Anthony Knafla, Equilibrium Environmental Inc.
GL 15-SGRC-05 and GL 16-SGRC-03

Various industries will benefit from an improved understanding of relationships between chloride exposure and aquatic life toxicity and potential health risks. These industries include oil and gas, salt storage, and, potash mining. The information may also assist municipalities in managing potential impacts of surface water bodies due to road salt and salt storage yard activities. The net impact of this work will be a reduction in potential volumes of soil and groundwater requiring remediation in regions where water hardness may mitigate the potential toxicity of chloride. This research may lead to potential revisions of provincial water quality guidelines as well as those published by the CCME, resulting in a national level impact. Improved environmental performance is always achieved with any science-based improvement to regulations, including the results of this proposed work.

Policy Issue
Regulatory Guidelines/Directives/Policies/Criteria

Knowledge Gap

Inorganics (salinity, metals)

  • Natural salt distribution,
  • Fate and transport assessment
  • Appropriate protection of various exposure pathways,
  • SCARG criteria evaluation
  • Risk-based soil quality guidelines for selected trace metals
  • Knowledge on background concentrations of inorganics